ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) scores are calculated using diverse data sources, encompassing information from public disclosures, company reports, and third-party databases. These scores evaluate specific ESG factors, with each dimension (environmental, social, and governance) comprising various indicators, each assigned a weight based on its relevance to overall performance. Scoring methods, such as numerical scales, letter grades, or percentile rankings, are applied to these factors, and the results are aggregated to generate an overall ESG score for the company. Some normalization may occur to account for industry or company size differences. These scores are then reported to investors and stakeholders, though it’s important to recognize that ESG scoring methods can vary between rating agencies and organizations, leading to variations in scores for the same company.